Dyslexia and Related Disorders

What's Required

"Dyslexia" means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity TEC 38.003(d)(1). Because early intervention is critical, a program for early identification, intervention, and support for students with dyslexia and related disorders must be available in each district as outlined in the Dyslexia Handbook Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders, 19 TAC 74.28(g),TEC 38.003(b) and TEC 38.003(c). 


The board of trustees of a school district must ensure that procedures for identifying a student with dyslexia or a related disorder are implemented in the district 19 TAC 74.28(a) and TEC 38.003(c). A school district's strategies for screening dyslexia and related disorders must be implemented in accordance with the Dyslexia Handbook Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders. A school district's techniques for treating dyslexia and related disorders must be implemented in accordance with the Dyslexia Handbook Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders. Screening should only be done by individuals/professionals who are trained to assess students for dyslexia and related disorders 19 TAC 74.28(b).


What We Do

It is important to note that students with hearing loss may struggle with the acquisition of the English Language and/or Reading due to the lack of phonemic awareness. While there are some students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing AND have dyslexia or a related disorder, poor performance in the skills listed below may NOT be an indicator of dyslexia alone. 


Dyslexia's primary reading/spelling characteristics are:

  • Difficulty reading words in isolation,
  • Difficulty accurately decoding unfamiliar words,
  • Difficulty with oral reading difficulties (slow, inaccurate, or labored without prosody) and/or
  • Difficulty spelling.
The department student support team with knowledge of the student, instructional practices, and possible service options meets to discuss data collected and the implications of the data meets with the department evaluator.  If the team or the parent suspects the student has dyslexia or a related disorder, the team should consider the type of instruction that would best meet the student's needs.  At times, students may display additional, potential learning challenges, such as written expression difficulties (dysgraphia), or math difficulties (dyscalculia), which may further impact student learning.  These challenges may also warrant an evaluation under IDEA. It is important to have an evaluator trained in these differences and aware of how deafness impacts language acquisition.
When formal evaluation is recommended, the school must complete an evaluation process that is outlines in IDEA. Procedural safeguards under IDEA must be followed.
Once dyslexia has been identified, there are further eligibility questions the Section 504 or ARD committee must still consider.
If a student is found eligible for special education services for dyslexia, appropriate reading instruction must be included in the plan to meet the individual needs of the student.  Appropriate reading instruction includes the components and delivery of dyslexia instruction as outlined in the Chapter IV: Critical, Evidence-Based Components of Dyslexia Instruction. 

(Texas Education Agency. The Dyslexia Handbook Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders 2018 Update, pp. 1, 22, 25, 27, 28, 32-34.)